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In September 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) distributed $20 million of Section 317 Immunization Program funds through the Adult Hepatitis B Vaccination Initiative (the Initiative). The Initiative enabled local health departments (LHDs) and partners to provide free adult hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine for adult clients at disproportionate risk for incident hepatitis B infection; however, funds for implementing the Initiative were not available.

In 2009–2010, NACCHO conducted a formative evaluation of the Initiative at 10 select LHDs. Through this evaluation the LHDs identified the successes, challenges, and lessons learned that others can use to guide their own vaccination efforts for high-risk adult populations.

As of August 2010, 317 immunization funds will no longer be used to support the Initiative. However, NACCHO's formative evaluation uncovered lessons and resources to support adult immunizations efforts as a whole, not just for HBV vaccinations. NACCHO hopes this "living" collection of tools and resources will aid LHDs in building internal and external capacity to immunize adults, especially those at high-risk as defined by CDC.