Public Health Ethics
Given the array of stakeholders and issues dealt with by local health departments (LHDs), health officials and their staff must be ready to handle ethical dilemmas that arise in day-to-day practice. Ethical considerations underlie numerous aspects of public health practice, ranging from staffing decisions at LHDs to distribution of vaccines during pandemics to media strategies related to sensitive subjects such as obesity.
Tension often emerges as LHD staff try to find balance between individual rights or preferences and a community’s claims to health and safety. Since 2010, NACCHO has partnered with the CDC Public Health Ethics Unit to provide public health ethics education and training for local health departments. The following resources include products and information resulting from the NACCHO-CDC ethics partnership, as well as related tools and content.
Good Decision Making in Real Time: Practical Public Health Ethics for Local Health Officials
A NACCHO representative and two local health directors provided input into public health ethics training developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Good Decision Making in Real Time: Public Health Ethics Training for Local Health Departments training course. The training has been presented at several conferences and is now available as an eLearning course on NACCHO University. The course provides public health professionals with tools and practical examples to address ethical challenges that commonly arise in the practice of public health. After introducing the basics of public health ethics, this course will discuss the importance of using case studies to practice applying an ethical analysis framework to address issues that public health practitioners are likely to face. The course also explores the overlap between ethics and law.
CDC Public Health Ethics Training Materials
The Public Health Ethics Unit of the CDC of the CDC provides training materials online, including a downloadable version of the Student's Manual for the Good Decision Making in Real Time ethics training course. The Facilitator's Manual is also available from CDC upon request.
A Guide for Ethics Champions
As an increasing number of LHDs seek accreditation, LHDs need resources and advocates to handle public health ethics issues effectively. The Public Health Accreditation Board requires LHDs to document processes for dealing with ethical concerns. This fact sheet will help accreditation coordinators and LHD practitioners understand and promote the importance of public health ethics.
Ethics Considerations for Accreditation
NACCHO served on the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) Ethics Think Tank planning committee, which made recommendations on how to incorporate public health ethics into the PHAB Standards & Measures, Version 1.5 guidance document for LHDs seeking accreditation. The requirements specific to public health ethics are found in Measure 11.1.2 A (p. 235) and focus on LHD strategies for resolving ethical issues and documentation demonstrating such problems have been considered and addressed.
Journal Article: Public Health Accreditation Metrics for Ethics
In 2013, the Journal of Public Health Management and Practice released the article, "Public Health Accreditation and Metrics for Ethics: A Case Study on Environmental Health and Community Engagement." The authors of this article, most of whom have been involved with NACCHO's work on public health ethics, provide a crosswalk showing linkages between the Public Health Accreditation Board's Standards and Measures, the Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the 10 Essential Public Health Services.
Visit this webpage to view a step-by-step guide to establishing an ethics committee. In addition to the guide, printable job aids are available that will help make the case for an ethics committee and provide ethics training resources to your LHD. Establishing an ethics committee can help work towards the Public Health Accreditation Board's ethics requirement.
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Public Health Law & Policy