NACCHO supports local health departments in protecting their communities from the bacterial and viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, rodents, and other emerging vectors. Through development of new tools and resources, policy statements, Stories from the Field, and more, NACCHO helps local health departments increase their capacity to address existing and emerging issues related to vector control and integrated pest management.
Mosquito-borne diseases are diseases of humans and/or animals caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. The list of mosquito-borne diseases is long (e.g., malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, Zika virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, La Crosse encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, etc.).
According to the World Health Organization, mosquitoes cause millions of deaths every year (WHO, Mosquito-borne diseases). Vector control has been an effective tool to control mosquito populations historically and continues today with conventional and updated tools. Integrated mosquito management and integrated vector management programs and guides have been developed to address the complexities of effective vector control strategies. The IVM approach is to "improve the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, ecological soundness and sustainability of disease-vector control" (WHO, IVM).
Mosquito Surveillance and Control Assessment in Zika Virus Priority Jurisdictions
NACCHO, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has released a summary of findings evaluating vector control capacity across ten Zika virus (ZIKV) priority jurisdictions. Mosquito control activities were assessed across jurisdictions in Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Los Angeles County, each identified as vulnerable for potential impact resulting from ZIKV.
- NACCHO and CDC compiled findings and implications into this slide deck.
NACCHO's assessment of mosquito control and surveillance activities in Zika virus priority jurisdictions provided important findings. These findings supported the formation of a Vector Control and Surveillance working group, run by NACCHO, funded by CDC, and comprised of representatives from local vector control organizations as well as subject matter experts. This working group will participate in the following activities:
- Discuss and share current vector control and surveillance plans;
- Identify challenges, resources used, and resources needed related to Zika response at the local level;
- Share public information communications tools and resources related to Zika with NACCHO and other state and local health officials; and
- Inform, review, and comment on a NACCHO-developed technical assistance program focused on improving vector control and surveillance capabilities at the local level.
In 2015, NACCHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a study to understand the current capacity of local rodent control programs across the United States. The study examined nine local rodent control programs to identify best practices, challenges, and technical assistance needs. Seven case studies summarizing each agency’s rodent control program as well as an executive summary have since been published.
Click below to access NACCHO's policy statement on vectors and vector-borne diseases.
- CDC | Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
- CDC | Lyme Disease Toolkit
- CDC | Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- CDC | Tickborne Diseases of the United States: A Reference Manual for Healthcare Providers, 3rd Edition, 2015
- National Academies of Sciences (NAS) | Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary (2016)
- NAS | Meeting Resources | Vector-Borne Diseases: Exploring the Environmental, Ecological, and Health Connections (Sept 2014)
- World Health Organization (WHO) | Vector-borne Diseases (Feb 2016)
- WHO | A Global Brief on Vector-Borne Diseases (2014)
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) | Bed Bugs: Get Them Out and Keep Them Out
- Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy (CIDRAP) | Zika Resources & Literature
- CDC | Zika Virus: Areas with Zika
- CDC | Estimated range of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the U.S. (2016)
- CDC | Surveillance for Zika: Early Detection of Local Transmission Can Reduce Widespread Transmission
- Public Library of Science (PLoS) | Collections: Zika
West Nile Virus
- CDC | West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control (2013)
- NACCHO | Overcoming Financial Barriers to Create and Sustain Local Mosquito Programs
- NACCHO | State and Local Mosquito Control Policies
Vector Surveillance and Control
- American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) | Best Practices for Integrated Mosquito Management: A Focused Updated (2017)
- CDC | Mosquito Control
- CDC | Vector Control/Integrated Pest Management
- CDC | Environmental Health Training in Emergency Response
- CDC | Environmental Public Health Online Courses
- CDC | Vector Control for Environmental Health Professionals
- CDC | Stormwater Management and Vector Breeding Habitats (2012)
- CDC | Guidelines for Arbovirus Surveillance Programs in the United States (1993)
- WHO | Integrated Vector Management
- WHO | Vector Control Operations Framework for Zika Virus (2016)
- WHO | Entomology and Vector Control
- Entomological Society of America (ESA) | Certification Corporation - Certification Programs
- Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) | Before the Swarm: Guidelines for the Emergency Management of Mosquito-Borne Disease Outbreak (2014)
- ASTHO | Public Health Confronts the Mosquito: Developing Sustainable State and Local Mosquito Control Programs (2005)
Vector-Borne Disease and Climate Change
- U.S. Global Change Research Program | Climate & Health Assessment | Ch. 5: Vector-Borne Diseases (2016)
- American Public Health Association (APHA)/ClimateNexus | Fact Sheet | How Climate Change Affects Your Health (2016)
- APHA/CDC | Fact Sheet | Climate Change Increases the Number and Geographic Range of Disease-Carrying Insects and Ticks (2016)
- ClimateNexus | Climate Change and Vector-Borne Diseases (2015)
- WHO | Report | Climate Change and its Impact on Vector-Borne Diseases (2012)
- WHO | All About Climate Change and Vector-Borne Diseases
- NIEHS | Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases & Climate Change
- U.S. Department of Defense | Armed Forces Pest Management Board
- Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC)
- EPA | Mosquito Control
- CDC | Where have all the vector control programs gone? Part I (2010)
- CDC | Where have all the vector control programs gone? Part II (2010)
- American Mosquito Control Association